How does language model pretraining help transfer learning? We consider a simple ablation technique for determining the impact of each pretrained layer on transfer task performance. This method, partial reinitialization, involves replacing different layers of a pretrained model with random weights, then finetuning the entire model on the transfer task and observing the change in performance. This technique reveals that in BERT, layers with high probing performance on downstream GLUE tasks are neither necessary nor sufficient for high accuracy on those tasks. Furthermore, the benefit of using pretrained parameters for a layer varies dramatically with finetuning dataset size: parameters that provide tremendous performance improvement when data is plentiful may provide negligible benefits in data-scarce settings. These results reveal the complexity of the transfer learning process, highlighting the limitations of methods that operate on frozen models or single data samples.